Digital Signature Validity by Country

Guía de Legalidad de Firma Digital

Admissibility in Court of a document with a digital signature


Documents signed with digital signatures are legally valid and have the same value as a handwritten signature in most countries.

On this page we show you the admission in court of documents with digital signatures, the norm applicable and its exclusions for each country.

This guide does not constitute official legal advice and should be used for informational purposes only. If you need specific information, consult a lawyer, as laws change frequently.


COUNTRY


COURT- ADMISSIBLE


RESOURCES


EXCLUSIONS

SpainYeseIDAS Regulation- Documents that require notarization
- Marriage agreements
- Some real estate agreements
- HR documents
ArgentinaYes (with some exceptions)Digital Signature Law- Documents that require notarization
- Corporate minutes that contain resolutions, and appointments and removals of officers and directors
- Resignation letters of employees
- Agreements related to real estate rights
AustraliaYesCommon law: Electronic Transactions Act - Documents that require a notarial process
- Documents related to migration and citizenship
- Statutory declarations requiring a witness
- Powers of attorney in some states
- Bills of exchange
- Health insurance, life insurance, and general insurance
- Documents, notices, and consents of credit-related services
- Property transactions in South Australia
Transfer of intellectual property
AustriaYeseIDAS regulation
Signature and Trust Services Act
- Documents that require notarization
- Legal transactions under family and inheritance law
- Company registers
BelgiumYeseIDAS
regulation
Act of 20 October 2000
- Documents that require notarization
- Real estate contracts that create or transfer rights
- Contracts requiring the involvement of courts or public authorities
- Contracts involving collateral securities furnished by persons acting for purposes outside their trade, business, or profession
- Contracts governed by family law or the law of succession
BrazilYesProvisional Measure- Documents that require notarization
BermudaYesElectronic Transactions Act 1999- Documents that require notarization
- Wills
- Real estate agreements
BulgariaYeseIDAS regulation- Documents that require notarization
BruneiYesElectronic Transactions Act- Documents that require notarization
CanadaYesPersonal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act- Documents that require notarization
- Real estate agreements, wills, and powers of attorney
ChileYesElectronic Documents, Electronic Signatures and Certification Services of Signatures- Agreements that require the attendance of one or more parties
- Real estate agreements related to acquisition, modification, and extinction
- Leasing agreements
- Appointment of legal guardians of minors
- Marital agreements
- Declaration of wills
- Mortgages
- IP transfers
- Documents that require notarization
- Agreements that require the physical presence of one or more parties
- Documents related to family law
ChinaYesPCR Electronic Signatures Law- Documents that require notarization
- Personal relationship agreements
- Some real estate agreements
ColombiaYeseIDAS regulation- Documents that require notarization
CroaciaYeseIDAS regulation- Documents that require notarization
Czech RepublicYeseIDAS regulation
Czech Civil Code
- Documents that require notarization
- Lease and real estate agreements
EstoniaYesCivil Code Act- Documents that require notarization
FinlandYeseIDAS Regulation
English Translation of the Act on Strong Electronic Identification and Electronic Signatures
- Real estate buying and selling contracts
- Documents that require notarization
FranceYeseIDAS Regulation
Act No. 2000-230 (2000) (French)
- Documents that require notarization
- Marriage agreements
- Labor agreements
- Some real estate agreements
GermanyYeseIDAS Regulation
Electronic Signature Act
- Documents that require notarization
- Marriage agreements
- Real estate agreements
GreceeYesTrust Services and Electronic identification Presidential Decree (“PD”)- Documents that require notarization
- Some real estate agreements
GuatemalaYesElectronic Communications and Signatures Law- Documents that require notarization
Hong KongYesElectronic Transactions Ordinance (Cap 553 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (2000)- Documents that require notarization
- Wills
- Powers of attorney
- Government leases
- Some real estate agreements
HungaryYeseIDAS Regulation EU Regulation No. 910/2014- Documents that require notarization
- Family agreements
- Marriage agreements
IcelandYesIcelandic Act No. 28/2001 on Electronic Signatures- Documents that require notarization
- Employee contracts
IndiaYesInformation Technology Act (2000)- Documents that require notarization
- Real estate agreements
- Powers of attorney
- Wills
- Trust deeds
IndonesiaYesElectronic Information and Transaction Law- Documents that require notarization
- Notarial deeds
- Court summonses
- Bond certificates
- Real estate documents
- HR documents
- Asset transaction documents
IrelandYeseIDAS Regulation
Electronic Commerce Act (2000)
- Documents that require notarization
- Wills
- Trusts
- Powers of attorneys
- Property transactions
IsraelYesElectronic Signature Law, 5761-2001- Documents that require notarization
ItalyYeseIDAS Regulation
Digital Administration Code, Legislative Decree 82/2005
- Loan agreements
- Documents that require notarization
LuxembourgYeseIDAS Regulation- Government leases
- Powers of attorney
- Real estate agreements
- Employment contracts
- Documents that require notarization
MacauYesLaw No. 5/2005 (2005)Macau Civil Code- Documents that require notarization
MalaysiaYesThe Digital Signature Act (1997)- Documents that require notarization
- Real estate property transfers
- Wills
- Money lending agreements
MexicoYesFederal Civil Code- Documents that require notarization
- Marriage agreements
- Documents related to tax obligations
MaltaYeseIDAS Regulation- Documents that require notarization
NigeriaYesThe Evidence Act Sections 84 and 93- Documents that require notarization
- Powers of attorney
- Wills
NorwayYeseIDAS Regulation- Documents that require notarization
- Debt certificates
- Premarital agreements
- Loan and security agreements
New ZealandYesElectronic Transactions Act (2002)- Documents that require notarization
- Powers of attorney
- Real estate agreements
- Wills
NetherlandsYeseIDAS Regulation
Electronic Signatures Act (Wet elektronische handtekeningen)
- Documents that require notarization
PeruYeseIDAS RegulationSignatures and Digital Certificates Law (Law No. 27269) (2000)- Documents that require notarization
- Mortgages
PhilippinesYesElectronic Commerce Act (2001)- Documents that require notarization
- Some real estate agreements
PolandYeseIDAS Regulation- Documents that require notarization
- Real estate agreements
- Company shares
- Bills of exchange
PortugalYeseIDAS Regulation
Decree Law No. 290-D/99 (2009)
- Documents that require notarization
- Employee terminations
- Real estate agreements
RomaniaYeseIDAS Regulation
Law No. 455/2001 on the Electronic Signature (2001)
- Documents that require notarization
- Some real estate agreements of immovable property
- Personal guarantee agreements
SlovakiaYeseIDAS regulation- Documents that require notarization
SloveniaYeseIDAS regulation- Documents that require notarization
Sri LankaYesElectronic Transactions Act- Documents that require notarization
- Wills
- Powers of attorney
- Contracts governed by family law or the law of succession
South KoreaYesEnglish Translation of the Digital Signature Act- Documents that require notarization
- Changes in real estate property ownership
- Transfers of intangible assets
- Wills
SwedenYeseIDAS Regulation
Lag Om kvalificerade Elektroniska Signaturer
- Documents that require notarization
- Government agreements
- Share certificates
- Employee termination letters
SwitzerlandYeseIDAS Regulation
Electronic Signature Law
- Documents that require notarization
- Wills
- Trusts
- Some real estate agreements
- Inheritance contracts
ThailandYesElectronic Transactions Act- Documents that require notarization
- Contracts of immovable properties
- Mortgage contracts
- Some agreements of ships
TaiwanYesElectronic Signatures Act- Documents that require notarization
- Agreements with government agencies
TurkeyYesThe Electronic Signature Law 5070- Documents that require notarization
- Wills
- Contracts under family law
- Inheritance agreements
United Arab EmiratesYesElectronic Commerce Law- Transactions and issues relating to personal law such as marriage, divorce, and wills
- Deeds of title to immovable property
- Negotiable instruments
- Transactions involving the sale, purchase, lease (for a term of more than 10 years) and other disposition of immovable property and the registration of other rights relating to immovable property
- Any document legally required to be attested before a notary public
United StatesYesThe Uniform Electronic Transactions Act
Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act
- Documents that require notarization
- Some real estate agreements
- Wills
- Divorce agreements
- Codicils
- Terminations of insurance
United KingdomYesThe Electronic Identification Regulation- Documents that require notarization
- Marriage agreements
- Some real estate agreements
- Negotiable instruments
UkraineYesLaw of Ukraine No. 852-IV on Electronic Digital Signature (the “E-signature Law”)- Documents that require notarization
- Real estate agreements
- Contracts under family law
- Inheritance agreements
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